Evidence-based foodplatform, geschreven door professionals

De voedingsindustrie houdt je soms voor de gek met misleidende etiketten en voedingsclaims op fabrieksproducten. Daarnaast is op het internet veel onjuiste informatie over voeding te vinden. Tijd voor een onderbouwd tegengeluid! I’m a Foodie is hét platform waarop diëtisten en voedings- en gezondheidswetenschappers hun kennis delen over gezonde voeding.
Wij staan voor gezond, duurzaam, vers (zonder pakjes en zakjes) en zelf koken. De onderwerpen zijn alledaags, evidence based én direct praktisch toepasbaar in je eigen situatie. Uiteindelijk is de keuze aan jou: op welke manier ga jij gezond eten?

Referenties uit Eet als een atleet

Referenties uit Eet als een atleet 2017-09-05T19:49:10+00:00
Wij onderbouwen al onze claims met wetenschappelijk onderzoek. Alle referenties uit ons boek Eet als een atleet kan je op deze pagina terugvinden. Voor de launch van het boek zullen we de lijst hier publiceren.

Hoofdstuk 1: De basis: het fundament voor jou prestatie én gezondheid

  1. Manore MM. Weight Management for Athletes and Active Individuals: A Brief Review. Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45 Suppl 1:S83–92.
  2. Rehrer NJ, Hellemans IJ, Rolleston AK, Rush E, Miller BF. Energy intake and expenditure during a 6-day cycling stage race. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Aug;20(4):609–18.
  3. Saris W, van Erp-Baart* M, Brouns F, Westerterp K, Hoor F. Study on Food Intake and Energy Expenditure During Extreme Sustained Exercise: The Tour de France. Int J Sports Med. 1989;10(S 1):S26–31.
  4. Longland TM, Oikawa SY, Mitchell CJ, Devries MC, Phillips SM. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;103(3):738–46.
  5. Myer GD, Faigenbaum AD, Foss KB, Xu Y, Khoury J, Dolan LM, et al. Injury initiates unfavourable weight gain and obesity markers in youth. Br J Sports Med. 2014 Oct;48(20):1477–81.
  6. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. 1038 p.
  7. Kenney WL, Wilmore J, Costill D. Physiology of Sport and Exercise 6th Edition. Human Kinetics; 2015. 648 p.
  8. Aparicio-Ugarriza R, Mielgo-Ayuso J, Benito PJ, Pedrero-Chamizo R, Ara I, González-Gross M, et al. Physical activity assessment in the general population; instrumental methods and new technologies. Nutr Hosp. 2015 Feb 26;31 Suppl 3:219–26.
  9. Whitney EN, Rolfes SR. Understanding Nutrition. Cengage Learning; 2015. 928 p.
  10. Ainslie P, Reilly T, Westerterp K. Estimating human energy expenditure: a review of techniques with particular reference to doubly labelled water. Sports Med. 2003;33(9):683–98.
  11. Hills AP, Mokhtar N, Byrne NM. Assessment of physical activity and energy expenditure: an overview of objective measures. Front Nutr. 2014 Jun 16;1:5.
  12. ten Haaf T, Weijs PJM. Resting energy expenditure prediction in recreational athletes of 18-35 years: confirmation of Cunningham equation and an improved weight-based alternative. PLoS One. 2014 Oct 2;9(9):e108460.
  13. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, United Nations University, World Health Organization. Human Energy Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation : Rome, 17-24 October 2001. Food & Agriculture Org.; 2004. 96 p.
  14. Efsa Panel on, (NDA) NAA. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for energy. EFSA Journal. 2013;11(1):3005.
  15. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, Meckes N, Bassett DR Jr, Tudor-Locke C, et al. 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011 Aug;43(8):1575–81.
  16. Hargens TA, Deyarmin KN, Snyder KM, Mihalik AG, Sharpe LE. Accuracy of Commercial Activity Trackers to Measure Energy Expenditure During a Controlled Exercise Trial: 2763 Board #286 June 3, 9: 30 AM – 11: 00 AM. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5 Suppl 1):777.
  17. Price K, Bird SR, Lythgo N, Raj IS, Wong JYL, Lynch C. Validation of the Fitbit One, Garmin Vivofit and Jawbone UP activity tracker in estimation of energy expenditure during treadmill walking and running. J Med Eng Technol. 2016 Dec 5;1–8.
  18. Evenson KR, Goto MM, Furberg RD. Systematic review of the validity and reliability of consumer-wearable activity trackers. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015 Dec 18;12:159.
  19. Dominick GM, Winfree KN, Pohlig RT, Papas MA. Physical Activity Assessment Between Consumer- and Research-Grade Accelerometers: A Comparative Study in Free-Living Conditions. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2016 Sep 19;4(3):e110.
  20. Kooiman TJM, Dontje ML, Sprenger SR, Krijnen WP, van der Schans CP, de Groot M. Reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers. BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil. 2015 Oct 12;7:24.
  21. Ridgers ND, McNarry MA, Mackintosh KA. Feasibility and Effectiveness of Using Wearable Activity Trackers in Youth: A Systematic Review. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2016 Nov 23;4(4):e129.
  22. Mercer K, Li M, Giangregorio L, Burns C, Grindrod K. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2016 Apr 27;4(2):e40.
  23. Van Der Vusse GJ, Reneman RS. Lipid Metabolism in Muscle. In: Comprehensive Physiology. 2011.
  24. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Mar;116(3):501–28.
  25. Henriksson J. Training induced adaptation of skeletal muscle and metabolism during submaximal exercise. J Physiol. 1977 Sep;270(3):661–75.
  26. Holloszy JO, Coyle EF. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. J Appl Physiol. 1984 Apr;56(4):831–8.
  27. Saltin B, Nazar K, Costill DL, Stein E, Jansson E, Essén B, et al. The nature of the training response; peripheral and central adaptations of one-legged exercise. Acta Physiol Scand. 1976 Mar;96(3):289–305.
  28. van Loon LJ, Jeukendrup AE, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ. Effect of training status on fuel selection during submaximal exercise with glucose ingestion. J Appl Physiol. 1999 Oct;87(4):1413–20.
  29. Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, et al. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Feb 2;7:7.
  30. Burke L, Deakin V. Clinical Sports Nutrition. McGraw-Hill Education / Australia; 2015. 768 p.
  31. Van Loon L. The effects of exercise and nutrition on muscle fuel selection. 2001; Available from: http://arno.unimaas.nl/show.cgi?did=31018
  32. van Loon LJ, Greenhaff PL, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ. The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans. J Physiol. 2001 Oct 1;536(Pt 1):295–304.
  33. Gezondheidsraad. Voedingsnormen – energie, eiwitten, vetten en verteerbare koolhydraten. 2001 Jul 18; Available from: http://www.mvo.nl/media/gezondheid/voedingsnormen_gr_2001.pdf
  34. [No title] [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jul 3]. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/Documenten_en_publicaties/Algemeen_Actueel/Uitgaven/Leefstijl_Voeding/VCP/Consumptie_van_een_aantal_voedingsmiddelengroepen_en_nutri_nten_door_de_Nederlandse_bevolking/Download/Consumptie_van_een_aantal_voedingsmiddelengroepen_en_nutri_nten_door_de_Nederlandse_bevolking.org
  35. Bandegan A, Courtney-Martin G, Rafii M, Pencharz PB, Lemon PW. Indicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary Allowance. J Nutr [Internet]. 2017 Feb 8; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.236331
  36. Phillips SM. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to metabolic advantage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006;31(6):647–54.
  37. Phillips SM, Chevalier S, Leidy HJ. Protein “requirements” beyond the RDA: implications for optimizing health 1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(5):565–72.
  38. Mamerow MM, Mettler JA, English KL, Casperson SL, Arentson-Lantz E, Sheffield-Moore M, et al. Dietary protein distribution positively influences 24-h muscle protein synthesis in healthy adults. J Nutr. 2014 Jun;144(6):876–80.
  39. Phillips SM, Van Loon LJC. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sports Sci. 2011;29 Suppl 1:S29–38.
  40. Areta JL, Burke LM, Ross ML, Camera DM, West DWD, Broad EM, et al. Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. J Physiol. 2013 May 1;591(9):2319–31.
  41. Moore DR, Churchward-Venne TA, Witard O, Breen L, Burd NA, Tipton KD, et al. Protein Ingestion to Stimulate Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Requires Greater Relative Protein Intakes in Healthy Older Versus Younger Men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014;70(1):57–62.
  42. Phillips SM. A brief review of critical processes in exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S71–7.
  43. Gillen JB, Trommelen J, Wardenaar FC, Brinkmans NYJ, Versteegen JJ, Jonvik KL, et al. Dietary Protein Intake and Distribution Patterns of Well-Trained Dutch Athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016 Oct 6;1–23.
  44. Res PT, Groen B, Pennings B, Beelen M, Wallis GA, Gijsen AP, et al. Protein Ingestion before Sleep Improves Postexercise Overnight Recovery. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2012;44(8):1560–9.
  45. Snijders T, Res PT, Smeets JSJ, van Vliet S, van Kranenburg J, Maase K, et al. Protein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Muscle Mass and Strength Gains during Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Healthy Young Men. J Nutr. 2015 Jun;145(6):1178–84.
  46. AC10747383] [anonymus. Dietary Protein Quality Evaluation in Human Nutrition: Report of an FAO Expert Consultation, 31 March-2 April, 2011, Auckland, New Zealand. 2013. 64 p.
  47. Poortmans JR, Dellalieux O. Do regular high protein diets have potential health risks on kidney function in athletes? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Mar;10(1):28–38.
  48. Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Jun 20;14:20.
  49. Stegeman NE, Oude HM, van Thiel NH-. Voeding bij gezondheid en ziekte: handboek voor de gezondheidszorg. 1986. 421 p.
  50. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. 1038 p.
  51. McKenzie AL, Muñoz CX, Armstrong LE. Accuracy of Urine Color to Detect Equal to or Greater Than 2% Body Mass Loss in Men. J Athl Train. 2015;50(12):1306–9.
  52. Kavouras SA. Assessing hydration status. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2002;5(5):519–24.
  53. Perrier ET, Johnson EC, McKenzie AL, Ellis LA, Armstrong LE. Urine colour change as an indicator of change in daily water intake: a quantitative analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2016 Aug;55(5):1943–9.
  54. Stegeman NE, Oude HM, van Thiel NH-. Voeding bij gezondheid en ziekte: handboek voor de gezondheidszorg. 1986. 421 p.
  55. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Sports and Exercise Nutrition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2012. 681 p.
  56. Frese C, Frese F, Kuhlmann S, Saure D, Reljic D, Staehle HJ, et al. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015 Jun;25(3):e319–26.
  57. Frese C E al. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jan 29]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24917276
  58. Bryant S, McLaughlin K, Morgaine K, Drummond B. Elite athletes and oral health. Int J Sports Med. 2011 Sep;32(9):720–4.
  59. Ashley P, Di Iorio A, Cole E, Tanday A, Needleman I. Oral health of elite athletes and association with performance: a systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2015 Jan;49(1):14–9.
  60. Needleman I, Ashley P, Fine P, Haddad F, Loosemore M, de Medici A, et al. Oral health and elite sport performance. Br J Sports Med. 2015 Jan;49(1):3–6.
  61. Zhang Y, Coca A, Casa DJ, Antonio J, Green JM, Bishop PA. Caffeine and diuresis during rest and exercise: A meta-analysis. J Sci Med Sport. 2015 Sep;18(5):569–74.
  62. Maughan RJ, Griffin J. Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2003 Dec;16(6):411–20.
  63. McLellan TM, Caldwell JA, Lieberman HR. A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Dec;71:294–312.

Hoofdstuk 2: Sport specifieke voeding: hoe kun jij je prestatie verbeteren?

    1. Thomas DT E al. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26891166
    2. van Loon LJ, Greenhaff PL, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ. The effects of increasing exercise intensity on muscle fuel utilisation in humans. J Physiol. 2001 Oct 1;536(Pt 1):295–304.
    3. Escobar KA, VanDusseldorp TA, Kerksick CM. Carbohydrate intake and resistance-based exercise: are current recommendations reflective of actual need? Br J Nutr. 2016 Dec;116(12):2053–65.
    4. Thomas DT, Travis Thomas D, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(3):501–28.
    5. James RM, Ritchie S, Rollo I, James LJ. No Dose Response Effect of Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse on Cycling Time-Trial Performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017 Feb;27(1):25–31.
    6. Jeukendrup AE, Gleeson M. Sport Nutrition: An Introduction to Energy Production and Performance. Human Kinetics 1; 2004. 411 p.
    7. Iwayama K E al. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 7]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26844280
    8. Paoli A E al. Exercising fasting or fed to enhance fat loss? Influence of food intake on respiratory ratio and excess postexercise oxygen consumption after a bou… – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 May 25]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21411835
    9. Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA, Wilborn CD, Krieger JW, Sonmez GT. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Nov 18;11(1):54.
    10. Temesi J, Johnson NA, Raymond J, Burdon CA, O’Connor HT. Carbohydrate ingestion during endurance exercise improves performance in adults. J Nutr. 2011 May;141(5):890–7.
    11. Hulston CJ, Venables MC, Mann CH, Martin C, Philp A, Baar K, et al. Training with Low Muscle Glycogen Enhances Fat Metabolism in Well-Trained Cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2010;42(11):2046–55.
    12. Marquet L-A, Brisswalter J, Louis J, Tiollier E, Burke LM, Hawley JA, et al. Enhanced Endurance Performance by Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: “Sleep Low” Strategy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 Apr;48(4):663–72.
    13. Bergström J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B. Diet, Muscle Glycogen and Physical Performance. Acta Physiol Scand. 1967;71(2-3):140–50.
    14. Bosch AN E al. Fuel substrate kinetics of carbohydrate loading differs from that of carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 May 25]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8609825
    15. Shirreffs SM, Armstrong LE, Cheuvront SN. Fluid and electrolyte needs for preparation and recovery from training and competition. J Sports Sci. 2004 Jan;22(1):57–63.
    16. Shirreffs SM, Sawka MN. Fluid and electrolyte needs for training, competition, and recovery. J Sports Sci. 2011;29(sup1):S39–46.
    17. Cheuvront SN, Kenefick RW, Montain SJ, Sawka MN. Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration. J Appl Physiol. 2010 Dec;109(6):1989–95.
    18. Dion T, Savoie FA, Asselin A, Gariepy C, Goulet EDB. Half-marathon running performance is not improved by a rate of fluid intake above that dictated by thirst sensation in trained distance runners. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113(12):3011–20.
    19. Goulet EDB. Dehydration and endurance performance in competitive athletes. Nutr Rev. 2012 Nov;70 Suppl 2:S132–6.
    20. Sawka MN, Montain SJ, Latzka WA. Hydration effects on thermoregulation and performance in the heat. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001;128(4):679–90.
    21. Armstrong LE. Performing in Extreme Environments. Human Kinetics 1; 2000. 333 p.
    22. Leiper JB, Pitsiladis Y, Maughan RJ. Comparison of water turnover rates in men undertaking prolonged cycling exercise and sedentary men. Int J Sports Med. 2001 Apr;22(3):181–5.
    23. Pettersson S, Berg CM. Hydration status in elite wrestlers, judokas, boxers, and taekwondo athletes on competition day. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2014 Jun;24(3):267–75.
    24. Artioli GG, Saunders B, Iglesias RT, Franchini E. It is Time to Ban Rapid Weight Loss from Combat Sports. Sports Med. 2016 Nov;46(11):1579–84.
    25. Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Anderson JM, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, et al. Hydration and muscular performance: does fluid balance affect strength, power and high-intensity endurance? Sports Med. 2007;37(10):907–21.
    26. Pallarés JG, Martínez-Abellán A, López-Gullón JM, Morán-Navarro R, De la Cruz-Sánchez E, Mora-Rodríguez R. Muscle contraction velocity, strength and power output changes following different degrees of hypohydration in competitive olympic combat sports. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Mar 8;13:10.
    27. Sundgot-Borgen J, Garthe I. Elite athletes in aesthetic and Olympic weight-class sports and the challenge of body weight and body compositions. J Sports Sci. 2011 May 24;29 Suppl 1:S101–14.
    28. Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM. Dehydration and rehydration in competative sport. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Oct;20 Suppl 3:40–7.
    29. Eleanor Noss(eleanor Noss, Rolfes SR, Whitney B. Understanding Nutrition. Wadsworth Publishing Company; 2011. 960 p.
    30. Goulet EDB, Aubertin-Leheudre M, Plante GE, Dionne IJ. A meta-analysis of the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on fluid retention and endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2007 Aug;17(4):391–410.
    31. van Rosendal SP, Osborne MA, Fassett RG, Coombes JS. Guidelines for glycerol use in hyperhydration and rehydration associated with exercise. Sports Med. 2010 Feb 1;40(2):113–29.
    32. Koehler K, Thevis M, Schaenzer W. Meta-analysis: Effects of glycerol administration on plasma volume, haemoglobin, and haematocrit. Drug Test Anal. 2013 Nov;5(11-12):896–9.
    33. Jeukendrup A. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S25–33.
    34. Cox GR, Clark SA, Cox AJ, Halson SL, Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, et al. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. J Appl Physiol. 2010 Jul;109(1):126–34.
    35. Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Jun 20;14:20.
    36. Phillips SM, Van Loon LJC. Dietary protein for athletes: from requirements to optimum adaptation. J Sports Sci. 2011;29 Suppl 1:S29–38.
    37. van Loon LJC. Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise? Sports Med. 2014;44(S1):105–11.
    38. Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2016;48(3):543–68.
    39. Beelen M, Koopman R, Gijsen AP, Vandereyt H, Kies AK, Kuipers H, et al. Protein coingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis during resistance-type exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;295(1):E70–7.
    40. Hansen M, Bangsbo J, Jensen J, Krause-Jensen M, Bibby BM, Sollie O, et al. Protein intake during training sessions has no effect on performance and recovery during a strenuous training camp for elite cyclists. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Mar 5;13:9.
    41. Martini FH. Anatomie en Fysiologie: Een Inleiding. Pearson Education; 2012. 842 p.
    42. Maughan RJ, Watson P, Shirreffs SM. Implications of active lifestyles and environmental factors for water needs and consequences of failure to meet those needs. Nutr Rev. 2015;73(suppl 2):130–40.
    43. Lott MJE, Galloway SDR. Fluid balance and sodium losses during indoor tennis match play. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 Dec;21(6):492–500.
    44. Makranz C, Heled Y, Shapiro Y, Epstein Y, Moran DS. [Fluid and sodium balance during exercise–standpoint]. Harefuah. 2012 Feb;151(2):107–10, 126.
    45. Hew-Butler T, Rosner MH, Fowkes-Godek S, Dugas JP, Hoffman MD, Lewis DP, et al. Statement of the 3rd International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, Carlsbad, California, 2015. Br J Sports Med. 2015 Nov;49(22):1432–46.
    46. The influence of additional mass on cycling hill-climbing performance. J Sci Med Sport. 2003;6(4):69.
    47. Ebert TR, Martin DT, Bullock N, Mujika I, Quod MJ, Farthing LA, et al. Influence of hydration status on thermoregulation and cycling hill climbing. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Feb;39(2):323–9.
    48. Leiper JB. Intestinal water absorption–implications for the formulation of rehydration solutions. Int J Sports Med. 1998 Jun;19 Suppl 2:S129–32.
    49. Maughan RJ, Leiper JB. Limitations to fluid replacement during exercise. Can J Appl Physiol. 1999 Apr;24(2):173–87.
    50. Adams WM, Vandermark LW, Belval LN, VanScoy RM, Attanasio SM, Casa DJ. Thirst As A Marker Of Hydration Status During And After Exercise In The Heat: 642 Board #5 June 1, 1: 00 PM – 3: 00 PM. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5 Suppl 1):167.
    51. Maresh CM. Effect of hydration status on thirst, drinking, and related hormonal responses during low-intensity exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97(1):39–44.
    52. Rowlands DS, Houltham S, Musa-Veloso K, Brown F, Paulionis L, Bailey D. Fructose-Glucose Composite Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance: Critical Review and Future Perspectives. Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45(11):1561–76.
    53. O’Brien WJ, Rowlands DS. Fructose-maltodextrin ratio in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution differentially affects exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate, gut comfort, and performance. AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2010;300(1):G181–9.
    54. Peart DJ, Hensby A, Shaw MP. Coconut Water Does Not Improve Markers of Hydration During Sub-Maximal Exercise and Performance in a Subsequent Time Trial Compared to Water Alone. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016 Oct 21;1–19.
    55. Kalman DS, Feldman S, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ. Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012;9(1):1.
    56. Nguyen RK, Lukaszuk JM, Alis JP, Salacinski AJ, Walker DA, Umoren J. Effectiveness of Coconut Water on Treadmill Anaerobic Test Performance: 867 Board #183 June 1, 2: 00 PM – 3: 30 PM. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016 May;48(5 Suppl 1):243.
    57. Yong JWH, Ge L, Ng YF, Tan SN. The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) water. Molecules. 2009 Dec 9;14(12):5144–64.
    58. de Ataide e Silva T, Di Cavalcanti Alves de Souza ME, de Amorim JF, Stathis CG, Leandro CG, Lima-Silva AE. Can carbohydrate mouth rinse improve performance during exercise? A systematic review. Nutrients. 2013 Dec 19;6(1):1–10.
    59. Rollo I, Williams C. Effect of mouth-rinsing carbohydrate solutions on endurance performance. Sports Med. 2011 Jun 1;41(6):449–61.
    60. Rowlatt G, Bottoms L, Edmonds CJ, Buscombe R. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on fencing performance and cognitive function following fatigue-inducing fencing. EJSS . 2017 May;17(4):433–40.
    61. Miller KC, Knight KL. Pain and soreness associated with a percutaneous electrical stimulation muscle cramping protocol. Muscle Nerve. 2007;36(5):711–4.
    62. Schwellnus MP, Drew N, Collins M. Increased running speed and previous cramps rather than dehydration or serum sodium changes predict exercise-associated muscle cramping: a prospective cohort study in 210 Ironman triathletes. Br J Sports Med. 2011 Jun;45(8):650–6.
    63. Schwellnus MP. Cause of Exercise Associated Muscle Cramps (EAMC) — altered neuromuscular control, dehydration or electrolyte depletion? Br J Sports Med. 2008;43(6):401–8.
    64. Nelson NL, Churilla JR. A narrative review of exercise-associated muscle cramps: Factors that contribute to neuromuscular fatigue and management implications. Muscle Nerve. 2016 Aug;54(2):177–85.
    65. Souza DB, Del Coso J, Casonatto J, Polito MD. Acute effects of caffeine-containing energy drinks on physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Feb;56(1):13–27.
    66. Campbell B, Wilborn C, La Bounty P, Taylor L, Nelson MT, Greenwood M, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: energy drinks. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Jan 3;10(1):1.
    67. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. CAERS Adverse Events Reports Allegedly Related to Red Bull. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/downloads/AboutFDA/CentersOffices/OfficeofFoods/CFSAN/CFSANFOIAElectronicReadingRoom/UCM328525.pdf.
    68. Tipton KD, Witard OC. Protein requirements and recommendations for athletes: relevance of ivory tower arguments for practical recommendations. Clin Sports Med. 2007 Jan;26(1):17–36.
    69. Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Sep;107(3):987–92.
    70. Yang Y, Churchward-Venne T, Burd N, Breen L, Phillips S. Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis Following Ingestion of Soy Protein Isolate at Rest and After Resistance Exercise in Elderly Men. In: Clinical Nutrition and Aging. 2016. p. 105–26.
    71. Thomas K, Morris P, Stevenson E. Improved endurance capacity following chocolate milk consumption compared with 2 commercially available sport drinks. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34(1):78–82.
    72. Wojcik JR, Walber-Rankin J, Smith LL, Gwazdauskas FC. Comparison of carbohydrate and milk-based beverages on muscle damage and glycogen following exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001 Dec;11(4):406–19.
    73. Ferguson-Stegall L, McCleave E, Ding Z, Doerner PG Iii, Liu Y, Wang B, et al. Aerobic exercise training adaptations are increased by postexercise carbohydrate-protein supplementation. J Nutr Metab. 2011 Jun 9;2011:623182.
    74. Impey SG E al. Fuel for the work required: a practical approach to amalgamating train-low paradigms for endurance athletes. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 May 25]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27225627
    75. Burke L. Fasting and recovery from exercise. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 May 25]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20460259
    76. Fenzl N E al. Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jun 2]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24879888
    77. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL. Exercise Physiology: Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. 1038 p.
    78. Moore DR, Churchward-Venne TA, Witard O, Breen L, Burd NA, Tipton KD, et al. Protein ingestion to stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis requires greater relative protein intakes in healthy older versus younger men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Jan;70(1):57–62.
    79. Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window? J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013;10(1):5.
    80. Phillips SM. A brief review of critical processes in exercise-induced muscular hypertrophy. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S71–7.
    81. Burke L, Deakin V. Clinical Sports Nutrition, Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill Education Australia; 2015. 848 p.
    82. Maughan RJ, Watson P, Cordery PA, Walsh NP, Oliver SJ, Dolci A, et al. A randomized trial to assess the potential of different beverages to affect hydration status: development of a beverage hydration index. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;103(3):717–23.
    83. Shirreffs SM, Watson P, Maughan RJ. Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink. Br J Nutr. 2007;98(01):173.
    84. Evans GH, James LJ, Shirreffs SM, Maughan RJ. Optimizing the restoration and maintenance of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration. J Appl Physiol. 2017 Jan 26;jap.00745.2016.
    85. Maughan RJ, Leiper JB, Shirreffs SM. Restoration of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration: effects of food and fluid intake. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;73(3-4):317–25.
    86. Flores-Salamanca R, Aragón-Vargas LF. Postexercise rehydration with beer impairs fluid retention, reaction time, and balance. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014 Oct;39(10):1175–81.
    87. Parr EB, Camera DM, Areta JL, Burke LM, Phillips SM, Hawley JA, et al. Alcohol ingestion impairs maximal post-exercise rates of myofibrillar protein synthesis following a single bout of concurrent training. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 12;9(2):e88384.
    88. Burke LM, Collier GR, Broad EM, Davis PG, Martin DT, Sanigorski AJ, et al. Effect of alcohol intake on muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2003 Sep;95(3):983–90.
    89. Duplanty AA, Budnar RG, Luk HY, Levitt DE, Hill DW, McFarlin BK, et al. Effect of Acute Alcohol Ingestion on Resistance Exercise-Induced mTORC1 Signaling in Human Muscle. J Strength Cond Res. 2017 Jan;31(1):54–61.
    90. Vingren JL, Hill DW, Buddhadev H, Duplanty A. Postresistance exercise ethanol ingestion and acute testosterone bioavailability. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Sep;45(9):1825–32.
    91. Scherr J, Nieman DC, Schuster T, Braun S, Wolfarth B, Halle M. Non-alcoholic Beer Reduces Inflammation And The Incidence Of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections After A Marathon. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2011;43(Suppl 1):18.
    92. Murphy AP, Snape AE, Minett GM, Skein M, Duffield R. The effect of post-match alcohol ingestion on recovery from competitive rugby league matches. J Strength Cond Res. 2013 May;27(5):1304–12.

Hoofdstuk 3: Supplementen: het topje om een topprestatie te leveren

      1. Wardenaar FC, Ceelen IJ, Van Dijk J-W, Hangelbroek RW, Van Roy L, Van der Pouw B, et al. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counselling Make a Difference? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016 Sep 6;1–25.
      2. Commission AS, Australia J of, Commission CS. http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/supplements. 2017 Mar 16 [cited 2017 Jul 28]; Available from: http://www.ausport.gov.au/ais/nutrition/supplements
      3. Goolsby MA, Boniquit N. Bone Health in Athletes. Sports Health. 2017;9(2):108–17.
      4. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Mar;116(3):501–28.
      5. Broad EM, Maughan RJ, Galloway SD. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism during exercise after oral carnitine supplementation in humans. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2008 Dec;18(6):567–84.
      6. Vukovich MD, Costill DL, Fink WJ. Carnitine supplementation: effect on muscle carnitine and glycogen content during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1994 Sep;26(9):1122–9.
      7. Broad EM, Maughan RJ, Galloway S DR. Effects of exercise intensity and altered substrate availability on cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise after oral carnitine supplementation in athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 Oct;21(5):385–97.
      8. Orer GE, Guzel NA. The effects of acute L-carnitine supplementation on endurance performance of athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Feb;28(2):514–9.
      9. Wall BT, Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Marimuthu K, Macdonald IA, Greenhaff PL. Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol. 2011 Feb 15;589(Pt 4):963–73.
      10. Spriet LL. New insights into the interaction of carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S87–96.
      11. Carvalho-Peixoto J, Moura MRL, Cunha FA, Lollo PCB, Monteiro WD, Carvalho LMJ de, et al. Consumption of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) functional beverage reduces muscle stress and improves effort tolerance in elite athletes: a randomized controlled intervention study. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Jul;40(7):725–33.
      12. Trinity JD, Pahnke MD, Trombold JR, Coyle EF. Impact of polyphenol antioxidants on cycling performance and cardiovascular function. Nutrients. 2014 Mar 24;6(3):1273–92.
      13. Myburgh KH. Polyphenol Supplementation: Benefits for Exercise Performance or Oxidative Stress? Sports Med. 2014;44(S1):57–70.
      14. Salacinski AJ, Howell SM, Hill DL, Mauk SM. The Acute Effects of Nonstimulant Over-the-Counter Dietary Herbal Supplements on Resting Metabolic Rate. J Diet Suppl. 2016;13(4):368–77.
      15. van de Ven K, Mulrooney KJD. Safety of contaminated vitamins and nutritional supplements can’t be left to consumers [Internet]. The Conversation. 2015 [cited 2017 Jul 28]. Available from: http://theconversation.com/safety-of-contaminated-vitamins-and-nutritional-supplements-cant-be-left-to-consumers-39901
      16. Shaw G, Lee-Barthel A, Ross ML, Wang B, Baar K. Vitamin C-enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan;105(1):136–43.
      17. Levine M, Violet P-C. Breaking down, starting up: can a vitamin C–enriched gelatin supplement before exercise increase collagen synthesis? Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;105(1):5–7.
      18. Kanzaki N, Ono Y, Shibata H, Moritani T. Glucosamine-containing supplement improves locomotor functions in subjects with knee pain a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Interv Aging. 2015;1743.
      19. Kanzaki N, Saito K, Maeda A, Kitagawa Y, Kiso Y, Watanabe K, et al. Effect of a dietary supplement containing glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate and quercetin glycosides on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;92(4):862–9.
      20. Eraslan A, Ulkar B. Glucosamine supplementation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Res Sports Med. 2015;23(1):14–26.
      21. Mountjoy M, Sundgot-Borgen J, Burke L, Carter S, Constantini N, Lebrun C, et al. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad—Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(7):491–7.
      22. Vangsness CT Jr, Spiker W, Erickson J. A review of evidence-based medicine for glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate use in knee osteoarthritis. Arthroscopy. 2009 Jan;25(1):86–94.
      23. Song QH E al. Glutamine supplementation and immune function during heavy load training. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25740264
      24. Castell L. Glutamine supplementation in vitro and in vivo, in exercise and in immunodepression. Sports Med. 2003;33(5):323–45.
      25. Antonio J, Street C. Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9916176
      26. Finn KJ E al. Glutamine Supplementation did not Benefit Athletes During Short-Term Weight Reduction. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24688278
      27. Gleeson M. Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training. J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):2045S – 2049S.
      28. Wilson JM, Fitschen PJ, Campbell B, Wilson GJ, Zanchi N, Taylor L, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB). J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Feb 2;10(1):6.
      29. Albert FJ E al. USEFULNESS OF Β-HYDROXY-Β-METHYLBUTYRATE (HMB) SUPPLEMENTATION IN DIFFERENT SPORTS: AN UPDATE AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26262692
      30. Kuehl KS. Cherry juice targets antioxidant potential and pain relief. Med Sport Sci. 2012 Oct 15;59:86–93.
      31. Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA, Brouner J, Jewell AP, van Someren KA, et al. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Dec;20(6):843–52.
      32. Levers K, Dalton R, Galvan E, Goodenough C, O’Connor A, Simbo S, et al. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Nov 16;12:41.
      33. Dimitriou L, Hill JA, Jehnali A, Dunbar J, Brouner J, McHugh MP, et al. Influence of a montmorency cherry juice blend on indices of exercise-induced stress and upper respiratory tract symptoms following marathon running—a pilot investigation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2015;12(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-015-0085-8
      34. Bell PG, McHugh MP, Stevenson E, Howatson G. The role of cherries in exercise and health. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014 Jun;24(3):477–90.
      35. McCormick R, Peeling P, Binnie M, Dawson B, Sim M. Effect of tart cherry juice on recovery and next day performance in well-trained Water Polo players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Nov 14;13:41.
      36. Coelho Rabello Lima L, Oliveira Assumpção C, Prestes J, Sérgio Denadai B. CONSUMPTION OF CHERRIES AS A STRATEGY TO ATTENUATE EXERCISE-INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE AND INFLAMMATION IN HUMANS. Nutr Hosp. 2015 Nov 1;32(5):1885–93.
      37. Evans M, Cogan KE, Egan B. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation. J Physiol [Internet]. 2016 Nov 10; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP273185
      38. EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP). Safety and efficacy of aromatic ketones, secondary alcohols and related esters belonging to chemical group 21 when used as flavourings for all animal species. EFSA Journal [Internet]. 2016;14(8). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4557
      39. Pinckaers PJM, Churchward-Venne TA, Bailey D, van Loon LJC. Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype? Sports Med. 2017 Mar;47(3):383–91.
      40. Nelson NL, Churilla JR. A narrative review of exercise-associated muscle cramps: Factors that contribute to neuromuscular fatigue and management implications. Muscle Nerve. 2016 Aug;54(2):177–85.
      41. Garrison SR, Allan GM, Sekhon RK, Musini VM, Khan KM. Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD009402.
      42. Jakeman E al JR. Effect of an acute dose of omega-3 fish oil following exercise-induced muscle damage. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jun 2]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28213750
      43. Weiser MJ, Butt CM, Mohajeri MH. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Cognition throughout the Lifespan. Nutrients. 2016 Feb 17;8(2):99.
      44. Famenini S, Rigali EA, Olivera-Perez HM, Dang J, Chang MT, Halder R, et al. Increased intermediate M1-M2 macrophage polarization and improved cognition in mild cognitive impairment patients on ω-3 supplementation. FASEB J. 2017 Jan;31(1):148–60.
      45. Filaire E, Massart A, Portier H, Rouveix M, Rosado F, Bage AS, et al. Effect of 6 Weeks of n-3 fatty-acid supplementation on oxidative stress in Judo athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2010 Dec;20(6):496–506.
      46. Lewis E, Radonic P, Wolever T, Wells G. 21 days of mammalian omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves aspects of neuromuscular function and performance in male athletes compared to olive oil placebo. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015;12(1):28.
      47. Jung YP, Earnest CP, Koozehchian M, Galvan E, Dalton R, Walker D, et al. Effects of acute ingestion of a pre-workout dietary supplement with and without p-synephrine on resting energy expenditure, cognitive function and exercise performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Jan 12;14:3.
      48. Outlaw JJ, Wilborn CD, Smith-Ryan AE, Hayward SE, Urbina SL, Taylor LW, et al. Acute effects of a commercially-available pre-workout supplement on markers of training: a double-blind study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Aug 15;11:40.
      49. Shelmadine B, Cooke M, Buford T, Hudson G, Redd L, Leutholtz B, et al. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009;6(Suppl 1):P18.
      50. Boots AW, Haenen GRMM, Bast A. Health effects of quercetin: From antioxidant to nutraceutical. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;585(2-3):325–37.
      51. Bhagwat S, Haytowitz DB, Holden JM. USDA Database for the Flavonoid Content of Selected Foods. Available from: https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/80400525/data/flav/flav_r03.pdf
      52. Somerville V, Bringans C, Braakhuis A. Polyphenols and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med [Internet]. 2017 Jan 17; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0675-5
      53. Ostojic SM. Mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals in sports medicine: a new perspective. Res Sports Med. 2017 Jan;25(1):91–100.
      54. Close GL, Ashton T, Cable T, Doran D, Holloway C, McArdle F, et al. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not attenuate post-exercise muscle soreness following muscle-damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process. Br J Nutr. 2006;95(5):976–81.
      55. Yfanti C, Åkerström T, Nielsen S, Nielsen AR, Mounier R, Mortensen OH, et al. Antioxidant Supplementation Does Not Alter Endurance Training Adaptation. Med Sci Sports Exercise. 2010;42(7):1388–95.
      56. Ristow M, Zarse K, Oberbach A, Klöting N, Birringer M, Kiehntopf M, et al. Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 26;106(21):8665–70.
      57. Palazzetti S, Rousseau A-S, Richard M-J, Favier A, Margaritis I. Antioxidant supplementation preserves antioxidant response in physical training and low antioxidant intake. Br J Nutr. 2004 Jan;91(1):91–100.
      58. Owens DJ, Tang JCY, Bradley WJ, Sparks AS, Fraser WD, Morton JP, et al. Efficacy of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplements for Elite Athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Feb;49(2):349–56.
      59. Gezondheidsraad. Evaluatie van de voedingsnormen voor vitamine D. 2012. 150 p.
      60. Farrokhyar F, Sivakumar G, Savage K, Koziarz A, Jamshidi S, Ayeni OR, et al. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Physical Performance in Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Sports Med [Internet]. 2017 Jun 2; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0749-4
      61. Neubauer O, Reichhold S, Nics L, Hoelzl C, Valentini J, Stadlmayr B, et al. Antioxidant responses to an acute ultra-endurance exercise: impact on DNA stability and indications for an increased need for nutritive antioxidants in the early recovery phase. Br J Nutr. 2010;104(08):1129–38.
      62. Neubauer O, Yfanti C. Antioxidants in Athlete’s Basic Nutrition: Considerations towards a Guideline for the Intake of Vitamin C and Vitamin E. In: Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition. 2014. p. 39–66.
      63. Burden RJ, Morton K, Richards T, Whyte GP, Pedlar CR. Is iron treatment beneficial in, iron-deficient but non-anaemic (IDNA) endurance athletes? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2015 Nov;49(21):1389–97.
      64. Thomas DT, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Mar;116(3):501–28.
      65. McClung JP, Gaffney-Stomberg E, Lee JJ. Female athletes: a population at risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies affecting health and performance. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2014 Oct;28(4):388–92.
      66. Bermon S, Castell LM, Calder PC, Bishop NC, Blomstrand E, Mooren FC, et al. Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2017;23:8–50.
      67. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. 2001.
      68. Wardenaar F, Brinkmans N, Ceelen I, Van Rooij B, Mensink M, Witkamp R, et al. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements. Nutrients [Internet]. 2017 Feb 15;9(2). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9020142
      69. Wardenaar FC E al. Nutritional Supplement Use by Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Does Receiving Dietary Counseling Make a Difference? – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27615123
      70. Bendich A, Cohen M. Vitamin B6 safety issues. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;585:321–30.
      71. Gdynia H-J, Müller T, Sperfeld A-D, Kühnlein P, Otto M, Kassubek J, et al. Severe sensorimotor neuropathy after intake of highest dosages of vitamin B6. Neuromuscul Disord. 2008 Feb;18(2):156–8.
      72. Perry TA, Weerasuriya A, Mouton PR, Holloway HW, Greig NH. Pyridoxine-induced toxicity in rats: a stereological quantification of the sensory neuropathy. Exp Neurol. 2004 Nov;190(1):133–44.
      73. Bender DA. Non-nutritional uses of vitamin B6. Br J Nutr. 1999 Jan;81(1):7–20.
      74. Sachdev S, Davies KJA. Production, detection, and adaptive responses to free radicals in exercise. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Jan 15;44(2):215–23.
      75. Powers SK, Talbert EE, Adhihetty PJ. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as intracellular signals in skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2011 May 1;589(Pt 9):2129–38.
      76. Gomez-Cabrera M-C, Domenech E, Viña J. Moderate exercise is an antioxidant: upregulation of antioxidant genes by training. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Jan 15;44(2):126–31.
      77. Ji LL. Modulation of skeletal muscle antioxidant defense by exercise: Role of redox signaling. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008 Jan 15;44(2):142–52.
      78. Bentley DJ, Ackerman J, Clifford T, Slattery KS. Acute and Chronic Effects of Antioxidant Supplementation on Exercise Performance. In: Lamprecht M, editor. Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2015.
      79. Merry TL, Ristow M. Do antioxidant supplements interfere with skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise training? J Physiol. 2016 Sep 15;594(18):5135–47.
      80. Gross M, Baum O. Supplemental Antioxidants and Adaptation to Physical Training. In: Lamprecht M, editor. Antioxidants in Sport Nutrition. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2015.
      81. Draeger CL, Naves A, Marques N, Baptistella AB, Carnauba RA, Paschoal V, et al. Controversies of antioxidant vitamins supplementation in exercise: ergogenic or ergolytic effects in humans? J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Feb 19;11(1):4.
      82. Mach N, Fuster-Botella D. Endurance exercise and gut microbiota: A review. Journal of Sport and Health Science [Internet]. 2016; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2016.05.001
      83. Clark A, Mach N. Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes. J Int Soc Sports Nutr [Internet]. 2016;13(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-016-0155-6
      84. Bermon S, Castell LM, Calder PC, Bishop NC, Blomstrand E, Mooren FC, et al. Consensus Statement Immunonutrition and Exercise. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2017;23:8–50.
      85. Cox AJ, Pyne DB, Saunders PU, Fricker PA. Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2008;44(4):222–6.
      86. Gleeson M, Bishop NC, Oliveira M, Tauler P. Daily probiotic’s (Lactobacillus casei Shirota) reduction of infection incidence in athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 Feb;21(1):55–64.
      87. Lamprecht M, Bogner S, Schippinger G, Steinbauer K, Fankhauser F, Hallstroem S, et al. Probiotic supplementation affects markers of intestinal barrier, oxidation, and inflammation in trained men; a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Sep 20;9(1):45.
      88. Pyne DB, West NP, Cox AJ, Cripps AW. Probiotics supplementation for athletes – clinical and physiological effects. EJSS . 2015;15(1):63–72.
      89. Gunzer W, Konrad M, Pail E. Exercise-induced immunodepression in endurance athletes and nutritional intervention with carbohydrate, protein and fat-what is possible, what is not? Nutrients. 2012 Sep;4(9):1187–212.
      90. Gleeson M. Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression? Nutr Rev. 2006 Mar;64(3):119–31.
      91. King S, Glanville J, Sanders ME, Fitzgerald A. Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review …. British Journal of [Internet]. 2014; Available from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/effectiveness-of-probiotics-on-the-duration-of-illness-in-healthy-children-and-adults-who-develop-common-acute-respiratory-infectious-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis/4382D42135F5C78FFA96E5F4C581944D
      92. Hao Q, Lu Z, Dong BR, Huang CQ, Wu T. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Sep 7;(9):CD006895.
      93. Van De Walle G. The Effect of Nitrate Supplementation on Exercise Tolerance and Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 2017. 58 p.
      94. Porcelli S, Pugliese L, Rejc E, Pavei G, Bonato M, Montorsi M, et al. Effects of a Short-Term High-Nitrate Diet on Exercise Performance. Nutrients [Internet]. 2016 Aug 31;8(9). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8090534
      95. Jonvik KL, Nyakayiru J, Pinckaers PJ, Senden JM, van Loon LJ, Verdijk LB. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults. J Nutr. 2016 May;146(5):986–93.
      96. Jones AM. Influence of dietary nitrate on the physiological determinants of exercise performance: a critical review1. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39(9):1019–28.
      97. Burke LM. Practical Issues in Evidence-Based Use of Performance Supplements: Supplement Interactions, Repeated Use and Individual Responses. Sports Med. 2017 Mar;47(Suppl 1):79–100.
      98. McLellan TM, Caldwell JA, Lieberman HR. A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016 Dec;71:294–312.
      99. Goldstein ER, Ziegenfuss T, Kalman D, Kreider R, Campbell B, Wilborn C, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Jan 27;7(1):5.
      100. Doherty M, Smith PM. Effects of caffeine ingestion on rating of perceived exertion during and after exercise: a meta-analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2005 Apr;15(2):69–78.
      101. Davis JK, Green JM. Caffeine and anaerobic performance: ergogenic value and mechanisms of action. Sports Med. 2009;39(10):813–32.
      102. Spriet LL. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine. Sports Med. 2014 Nov;44 Suppl 2:S175–84.
      103. Hodgson AB, Randell RK, Jeukendrup AE. The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 3;8(4):e59561.
      104. Higgins S, Straight CR, Lewis RD. The Effects of Preexercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016 Jun;26(3):221–39.
      105. Talanian JL, Spriet LL. Low and moderate doses of caffeine late in exercise improve performance in trained cyclists. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Aug;41(8):850–5.
      106. Kreider RB. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Feb;244(1-2):89–94.
      107. Riesberg LA, Weed SA, McDonald TL, Eckerson JM, Drescher KM. Beyond muscles: The untapped potential of creatine. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016 Aug;37:31–42.
      108. Bemben MG, Lamont HS. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: recent findings. Sports Med. 2005;35(2):107–25.
      109. Demant TW, Rhodes EC. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance. Sports Med. 1999 Jul;28(1):49–60.
      110. Lanhers C, Pereira B, Naughton G, Trousselard M, Lesage F-X, Dutheil F. Creatine Supplementation and Upper Limb Strength Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2017 Jan;47(1):163–73.
      111. Kreider RB, Kalman DS, Antonio J, Ziegenfuss TN, Wildman R, Collins R, et al. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: safety and efficacy of creatine supplementation in exercise, sport, and medicine. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Jun 13;14:18.
      112. Kreider RB, Melton C, Rasmussen CJ, Greenwood M, Lancaster S, Cantler EC, et al. Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes. In: Guanidino Compounds in Biology and Medicine. 2003. p. 95–104.
      113. Kim HJ, Kim CK, Carpentier A, Poortmans JR. Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids. 2011;40(5):1409–18.
      114. Hobson RM, Saunders B, Ball G, Harris RC, Sale C. Effects of β-alanine supplementation on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. Amino Acids. 2012 Jul;43(1):25–37.
      115. Lancha Junior AH E al. Nutritional Strategies to Modulate Intracellular and Extracellular Buffering Capacity During High-Intensity Exercise. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26553493
      116. Bellinger PM. β-Alanine supplementation for athletic performance: an update. J Strength Cond Res. 2014 Jun;28(6):1751–70.
      117. Bellinger PM. β-Alanine Supplementation for Athletic Performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(6):1751–70.
      118. Stellingwerff T, Anwander H, Egger A, Buehler T, Kreis R, Decombaz J, et al. Effect of two β-alanine dosing protocols on muscle carnosine synthesis and washout. Amino Acids. 2012 Jun;42(6):2461–72.
      119. Stegen S E al. β-Alanine dose for maintaining moderately elevated muscle carnosine levels. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jun 2]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24389513
      120. Burke LM. Practical considerations for bicarbonate loading and sports performance. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013 Apr 16;75:15–26.
      121. Carr AJ, Hopkins WG, Gore CJ. Effects of acute alkalosis and acidosis on performance: a meta-analysis. Sports Med. 2011 Oct 1;41(10):801–14.
      122. Derave W. Use of β-alanine as an ergogenic aid. Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser. 2013 Apr 16;75:99–108.
      123. Junior AHL, de Salles Painelli V, Saunders B, Artioli GG. Nutritional Strategies to Modulate Intracellular and Extracellular Buffering Capacity During High-Intensity Exercise. Sports Med. 2015 Nov 1;45(1):71–81.

Hoofdstuk 4: Sportvoeding is maatwerk

      1. Fogelholm M. Effects of bodyweight reduction on sports performance. Sports Med. 1994 Oct;18(4):249–67.
      2. Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ, Wildman R, Kleiner S, VanDusseldorp T, Taylor L, et al. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2017 Jun 14;14:16.
      3. Garthe I, Raastad T, Refsnes PE, Koivisto A, Sundgot-Borgen J. Effect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011 Apr;21(2):97–104.
      4. Thomas DT, Travis Thomas D, Erdman KA, Burke LM. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(3):501–28.
      5. Mettler S, Mitchell N, Tipton KD. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Feb;42(2):326–37.
      6. Hulmi JJ, Isola V, Suonpää M, Järvinen NJ, Kokkonen M, Wennerström A, et al. The Effects of Intensive Weight Reduction on Body Composition and Serum Hormones in Female Fitness Competitors. Front Physiol. 2016;7:689.
      7. Helms ER, Aragon AA, Fitschen PJ. Evidence-based recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: nutrition and supplementation. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 May 12;11:20.
      8. Robinson SL, Lambeth-Mansell A, Gillibrand G, Smith-Ryan A, Bannock L. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: case study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 May 1;12:20.
      9. El Ghoch M, Soave F, Calugi S, Dalle Grave R. Eating disorders, physical fitness and sport performance: a systematic review. Nutrients. 2013 Dec 16;5(12):5140–60.
      10. Sundgot-Borgen J, Meyer NL, Lohman TG, Ackland TR, Maughan RJ, Stewart AD, et al. How to minimise the health risks to athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports review and position statement on behalf of the Ad Hoc Research Working Group on Body Composition, Health and Performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission. Br J Sports Med. 2013 Nov;47(16):1012–22.
      11. Joy E, Kussman A, Nattiv A. 2016 update on eating disorders in athletes: A comprehensive narrative review with a focus on clinical assessment and management. Br J Sports Med. 2016 Feb;50(3):154–62.
      12. Bar RJ, Cassin SE, Dionne MM. Eating disorder prevention initiatives for athletes: A review. EJSS . 2016;16(3):325–35.
      13. Bonci CM, Bonci LJ, Granger LR, Johnson CL, Malina RM, Milne LW, et al. National athletic trainers’ association position statement: preventing, detecting, and managing disordered eating in athletes. J Athl Train. 2008 Jan;43(1):80–108.
      14. Slater J, Brown R, McLay-Cooke R, Black K. Low Energy Availability in Exercising Women: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions. Sports Med. 2017 Feb;47(2):207–20.
      15. Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Norton LE. Metabolic adaptation to weight loss: implications for the athlete. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014 Feb 27;11(1):7.
      16. Slater J, McLay-Cooke R, Brown R, Black K. Female Recreational Exercisers at Risk for Low Energy Availability. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016 Oct;26(5):421–7.
      17. Matzkin E, Curry EJ, Whitlock K. Female Athlete Triad: Past, Present, and Future. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2015 Jul;23(7):424–32.
      18. Miller SM, Kukuljan S, Turner AIT, van der Pligt P, Ducher G. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances, and low bone mass: what do exercising Australian women know about the female athlete triad? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012 Apr;22(2):131–8.
      19. Mountjoy M, Sundgot-Borgen J, Burke L, Carter S, Constantini N, Lebrun C, et al. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad–Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Br J Sports Med. 2014 Apr;48(7):491–7.
      20. Mountjoy M, Sundgot-Borgen J, Burke L, Carter S, Constantini N, Lebrun C, et al. Authors’ 2015 additions to the IOC consensus statement: Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S). Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(7):417–20.
      21. Godek SF, Bartolozzi AR, Burkholder R, Sugarman E, Peduzzi C. Sweat Rates and Fluid Turnover in Professional Football Players: A Comparison of National Football League Linemen and Backs. J Athl Train. 2008;43(2):184–9.
      22. Baker LB. Sweating Rate and Sweat Sodium Concentration in Athletes: A Review of Methodology and Intra/Interindividual Variability. Sports Med. 2017 Mar;47(Suppl 1):111–28.
      23. Lara B, Gallo-Salazar C, Puente C, Areces F, Salinero JJ, Del Coso J. Interindividual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration in marathoners. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Jul 29;13:31.
      24. Sato K, Sato F. Individual variations in structure and function of human eccrine sweat gland. Am J Physiol. 1983 Aug;245(2):R203–8.
      25. Sawka MN, Montain SJ, Latzka WA. Hydration effects on thermoregulation and performance in the heat. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2001;128(4):679–90.
      26. Sawka MN, Montain SJ. Fluid and electrolyte supplementation for exercise heat stress. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):564S – 72S.
      27. Racinais S, Alonso JM, Coutts AJ, Flouris AD, Girard O, González-Alonso J, et al. Consensus recommendations on training and competing in the heat. Br J Sports Med. 2015 Sep;49(18):1164–73.
      28. Chinevere TD, Kenefick RW, Cheuvront SN, Lukaski HC, Sawka MN. Effect of heat acclimation on sweat minerals. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 May;40(5):886–91.
      29. Delves SK, Kelly JS, Gledhill M, Warke R, Fallowfield JL. The effect of acclimation to the heat on the resting sweat response. Extreme Physiology & Medicine. 2015;4(Suppl 1):A118.
      30. Sato F, Owen M, Matthes R, Sato K, Gisolfi CV. Functional and morphological changes in the eccrine sweat gland with heat acclimation. J Appl Physiol. 1990 Jul;69(1):232–6.
      31. ACSM | Articles [Internet]. [cited 2017 Jul 11]. Available from: http://www.acsm.org/public-information/articles/2016/10/07/preparing-for-and-playing-in-the-heat
      32. Morris JG, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Macdonald IA, Williams C. Muscle metabolism, temperature, and function during prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity running in air temperatures of 33 degrees and 17 degrees C. Int J Sports Med. 2005 Dec;26(10):805–14.
      33. Febbraio MA, Snow RJ, Stathis CG, Hargreaves M, Carey MF. Blunting the rise in body temperature reduces muscle glycogenolysis during exercise in humans. Exp Physiol. 1996 Jul;81(4):685–93.
      34. Meyer NL, Manore MM, Helle C. Nutrition for winter sports. J Sports Sci. 2011 Jun 21;29 Suppl 1:S127–36.
      35. Shephard RJ. Metabolic adaptations to exercise in the cold. An update. Sports Med. 1993 Oct;16(4):266–89.
      36. Burke LM. Nutrition for Winter Sports: An Interview with Sports Dietitian Susie Parker-Simmons. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2005;15(5):567–70.
      37. Carlsen K-H. Sports in extreme conditions: the impact of exercise in cold temperatures on asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes. Br J Sports Med. 2012 Sep;46(11):796–9.
      38. Sue-Chu M. Winter sports athletes: long-term effects of cold air exposure. Br J Sports Med. 2012 May;46(6):397–401.
      39. Gunzer W, Konrad M, Pail E. Exercise-induced immunodepression in endurance athletes and nutritional intervention with carbohydrate, protein and fat-what is possible, what is not? Nutrients. 2012 Sep;4(9):1187–212.
      40. Wehrlin JP, Hallén J. Linear decrease in .VO2max and performance with increasing altitude in endurance athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Mar;96(4):404–12.
      41. Woods AL E al. Four Weeks of Classical Altitude Training Increases Resting Metabolic Rate in Highly Trained Middle-Distance Runners. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 May 14]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27459673
      42. Thomas DT E al. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Perfo… – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 May 14]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26920240
      43. Garvican-Lewis LA, Govus AD, Peeling P, Abbiss CR, Gore CJ. Iron Supplementation and Altitude: Decision Making Using a Regression Tree. J Sports Sci Med. 2016 Mar;15(1):204.
      44. Govus AD E al. Pre-Altitude Serum Ferritin Levels and Daily Oral Iron Supplement Dose Mediate Iron Parameter and Hemoglobin Mass Responses to Altitude Exposure. – PubMed – NCBI [Internet]. [cited 2017 Apr 22]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26263553
      45. Tipton KD. Nutritional Support for Exercise-Induced Injuries. Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45 Suppl 1:S93–104.
      46. Wall BT, Morton JP, van Loon LJC. Strategies to maintain skeletal muscle mass in the injured athlete: nutritional considerations and exercise mimetics. EJSS . 2015;15(1):53–62.
      47. Magne H, Savary-Auzeloux I, Rémond D, Dardevet D. Nutritional strategies to counteract muscle atrophy caused by disuse and to improve recovery. Nutr Res Rev. 2013 Dec;26(2):149–65.
      48. Wall BT, van Loon LJC. Nutritional strategies to attenuate muscle disuse atrophy. Nutr Rev. 2013 Apr;71(4):195–208.
      49. Stegeman N. Voeding bij gezondheid en ziekte. 2013.
      50. Vriend I, Gouttebarge V, Finch CF, van Mechelen W, Verhagen EALM. Intervention Strategies Used in Sport Injury Prevention Studies: A Systematic Review Identifying Studies Applying the Haddon Matrix. Sports Med [Internet]. 2017 Mar 16; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0718-y
      51. Craddock JC, Probst YC, Peoples GE. Vegetarian and Omnivorous Nutrition – Comparing Physical Performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2016 Jun;26(3):212–20.
      52. Fuhrman J, Ferreri DM. Fueling the vegetarian (vegan) athlete. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2010 Jul;9(4):233–41.
      53. Berning JR. The Vegetarian Athlete. In: The Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine. 2013. p. 382–91.
      54. Melina V, Craig W, Levin S. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(12):1970–80.
      55. Venderley AM, Campbell WW. Vegetarian diets : nutritional considerations for athletes. Sports Med. 2006;36(4):293–305.
      56. Barr SI, Rideout CA. Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes. Nutrition. 2004 Jul;20(7-8):696–703.
      57. Craddock JC, Probst Y, Peoples G. Vegetarian nutrition – Comparing physical performance of omnivorous and vegetarian athletes. Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism. 2016;4:19.
      58. Watanabe F, Yabuta Y, Bito T, Teng F. Vitamin B12-Containing Plant Food Sources for Vegetarians. Nutrients. 2014;6(5):1861–73.
      59. Watanabe F. Vitamin B12 sources and bioavailability. Exp Biol Med . 2007 Nov;232(10):1266–74.
      60. Gropper SS, Smith JL, Carr TP. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. Cengage Learning; 2016. 640 p.
      61. Lis DM, Fell JW, Ahuja KDK, Kitic CM, Stellingwerff T. Commercial Hype Versus Reality: Our Current Scientific Understanding of Gluten and Athletic Performance. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2016 Jul;15(4):262–8.
      62. Lis D, Stellingwerff T, Kitic CM, Ahuja KDK, Fell J. No Effects of a Short-Term Gluten-free Diet on Performance in Nonceliac Athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Dec;47(12):2563–70.
      63. Petrie HJ, Stover EA, Horswill CA. Nutritional concerns for the child and adolescent competitor. Nutrition. 2004;20(7-8):620–31.
      64. Desbrow B, McCormack J, Burke LM, Cox GR, Fallon K, Hislop M, et al. Sports Dietitians Australia position statement: sports nutrition for the adolescent athlete. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2014 Oct;24(5):570–84.
      65. Jeukendrup A, Cronin L. Nutrition and Elite Young Athletes. In: Medicine and Sport Science. 2010. p. 47–58.
      66. Parnell JA, Wiens KP, Erdman KA. Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Canadian Athletes. Nutrients [Internet]. 2016 Aug 26;8(9). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8090526
      67. Hinton PS, Sanford TC, Davidson MM, Yakushko OF, Beck NC. Nutrient intakes and dietary behaviors of male and female collegiate athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2004 Aug;14(4):389–405.
      68. de Oliveira EP, Burini RC, Jeukendrup A. Gastrointestinal complaints during exercise: prevalence, etiology, and nutritional recommendations. Sports Med. 2014 May;44 Suppl 1:S79–85.
      69. Jeukendrup AE. Training the Gut for Athletes. Sports Med. 2017 Mar 1;47(1):101–10.
      70. Miall A, Khoo A, Rauch C, Snipe R, Camões-Costa V, Gibson PR, et al. Two weeks of repetitive gut-challenge reduces exercise associated gastrointestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Scand J Med Sci Sports [Internet]. 2017 May 16; Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.12912
      71. Cox GR, Clark SA, Cox AJ, Halson SL, Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, et al. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(1):126–34.
      72. Jeukendrup AE. Training the Gut for Athletes. Sports Med. 2017 Mar 1;47(1):101–10.
      73. Cox GR, Clark SA, Cox AJ, Halson SL, Hargreaves M, Hawley JA, et al. Daily training with high carbohydrate availability increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during endurance cycling. J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(1):126–34.